Ketosis refers to a way that your body obtains energy from food. Carbohydrates provide energy for your body - things like bread, fruit, and starchy vegetables. These break down into glucose, which your body uses for energy. Excess energy - that is, if you consume more than you need - is turned into fat. The fat on your body is excess energy your body keeps around, like a savings account of fuel. When you use fat for energy, instead of carbohydrates, then your body enters a state of ketosis. This refers to not just burning the fact that your body has already stored for energy, but also using dietary fat as a primary source of food energy, versus glucose and carbs. In fact, many people on weight-loss diets swear by "Keto" - ketosis for weight loss.
Once you've reached "full ketosis" - that is, once you're burning fat to provide energy for your body instead of carbs - you'll experience elevated ketones in the body. This may cause your breath to smell fruity, or even like nail polish remover or acetone. Although you may brush your teeth regularly, the smell is caused by your diet. You may choose to chew sugar-free gum to help with the smell, but make sure you check the label - if there is sugar or hidden carbs, it can decrease the levels of ketones in your blood. Luckily, this isn't a permanent side effect. Many Keto dieters report that this disappears within a few weeks.
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