Multiple sclerosis, commonly known as M.S. is an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system. It particularly affects the transmission of information within the brain, as well as between the brain and the body. In people with MS, their immune system attacks the nerve fibers and myelin. Myelin is the fatty substance that acts as their buffer. Damage to the nerve fibers and consequent formation of scar tissue disrupts the flow of nerve impulses across the body.

Numbness and Tingling

Numbness and tingling in the limbs and face are one of the first symptoms that appear in MS patients. Other parts of the body may experience this sensation as well. The "pins and needles" sensation may be mildly annoying or so intense that it is incapacitating. In cases where these symptoms are severe, individuals may face difficulty in performing routine, day-to-day tasks. Medication may help to restore feeling. However, there is no cure to alleviate numbness and tingling.

numbness ms

Muscle Spasms

A large majority of MS patients report having muscle spasms at some point. These are sharp, involuntary twitches of muscle groups usually affecting legs, however, other body parts may experience spasms as well. Frequent and severe muscle spasms may be debilitating. Most individuals suffering from MS also feel stiffness in the region prone to spasms. Fortunately, there are several ways of achieving relief from MS-triggered muscle spasms, including medication, physiotherapy, and alternative remedies.

muscle spasms ms

Vertigo and Dizziness

It is common for people with MS to feel light-headed or to suffer from episodes of vertigo. Both vertigo and dizziness put patients at risk of losing their balance and becoming injured due to falls. Experts suggest that such MS symptoms imply that there is a lesion in the brain stem or cerebellum. Treatment for vertigo and dizziness involves over-the-counter medication for motion sickness in mild cases and of corticosteroids in severe cases.

vertigo ms

Bladder and Bowel Problems

A majority of MS patients complain of problems with bladder and bowel function. Bladder dysfunction manifests as the urge to urinate frequently, loss of control over bladder release and, in a few cases, even difficulty with emptying the bladder. Constipation is a common complaint among MS patients as well. Patients can normally get these symptoms under control with diet modification and an increase in fluid intake. However, in some cases, prescription medication may be necessary.

bladder ms

Abnormal Vision

Vision-related problems are common and very widely experienced in those with MS. There are three conditions which commonly affect these patients:

  • Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve, causing blurring of vision and potential blindness in one eye.
  • Nystagmus: Rapid, uncontrolled movement of the eyes.
  • Diplopia: A lack of coordination between muscles of the eye, preventing the successful coalition of images from both eyes, thus resulting in double vision.

In many cases, the abnormal vision corrects itself over time. However, if symptoms become extremely problematic and impede daily functioning, doctors may prescribe medication to alleviate symptoms.

vision ms


Over 80% of individuals suffering from MS find themselves extremely prone to fatigue and lack of energy. It may be secondary to sleep deprivation caused by frequent night urination and nocturnal spasms. Depression caused by the MS may also be responsible for low energy levels. Another form of tiredness called lassitude may be present. Lassitude is fatigue that occurs on a daily basis. It may come on in the mornings even after getting adequate sleep. It usually worsens as the day goes by and is likely to worsen with exposure to heat and humidity. Lassitude is an intense and debilitating form of fatigue that tends to affect one's professional and personal lives in major ways. For alleviation of this condition, it is best to consult with an experienced physician, since a number of causes may underlie MS-based fatigue.

fatigue ms

Memory Loss

As MS affects the central nervous system, patients are most likely going to experience a combination of cognitive symptoms. The impact of MS on the nervous system can present in a number of ways. For example, patients can experience memory loss or lapses, language issues, an inability to concentrate, deteriorated focus, shortened attention span, disorganization issues or problems with making decisions. These impairments can increase irritability in the patients and lead to depression, therefore resulting in withdrawal and fatigue.

memory loss ms

Sexual Problems

When dealing with MS, patients can experience problems related to sexual desire and function. Those with MS can have a decreased sexual drive, and the drive may disappear completely over time. Sex can become a major challenge in patients with MS and their partners, as it affects the central nervous system.

sexual problems ms


MS doesn't just take a toll on people's physical health, but also on their emotional health. Multiple sclerosis sufferers have to deal with mood swings, irritability, and depression. This condition can affect people's independence and mobility, as well as their personal relationships, which contributes to depression. Additionally, episodes of uncontrollable laughing and crying are also quite common.

depression ms


MS lesions leads to the development of lesions in the cerebral cortex. Which are the outermost neural tissues that cover the cerebrum, and the largest part of the brain. Patients with MS can experience epileptic-type seizures as a result of these lesions. As a matter of fact, the risk of seizures is extremely high in patients suffering from MS.

ms seizures


Coordination Difficulties

Multiple sclerosis can significantly impair an individual's hand-eye coordination, making tasks that once seemed simple, like buttoning a shirt or typing on a keyboard, frustratingly difficult. This loss of coordination is primarily due to the disruption of nerve signals that control muscle movement and sensation. The MS lesions in the brain can interfere with normal nerve function. While there's no one-size-fits-all solution, occupational therapy can offer strategies and tools to manage these challenges, helping patients maintain as much independence as possible.

Elderly woman fasten buttons on dress , progressive brain disorder ,Close up hand


Problems with Walking

Walking difficulties are a common and often early sign of multiple sclerosis. Individuals may notice a change in their gait, such as dragging one foot, or a general heaviness in their legs. These changes can make walking not just challenging but also exhausting. Physical therapy focused on strengthening leg muscles and improving balance can be beneficial. In some cases, mobility aids like canes or walkers become necessary tools for maintaining mobility and independence.

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Speech Difficulties

Speech difficulties, including slurred speech or trouble articulating words, can occur in individuals with multiple sclerosis. These issues arise from the weakening of the muscles involved in speech or from neural disruptions affecting the speech. Speech therapy can offer techniques and exercises to improve speech clarity and communication effectiveness, ensuring that individuals can continue to express themselves and connect with others.

Communication, feeling doubt and uncertain. Two young women standing communicating chatting one on them feeling doubt frustrated


Hearing Loss

Though less common, multiple sclerosis can affect hearing, leading to hearing loss or a heightened sensitivity to sound. This symptom can be particularly frustrating, affecting an individual's ability to interact with their environment and communicate with others. If hearing changes are noticed, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider for a thorough evaluation and to discuss potential treatments that can help manage this symptom, such as hearing aids or sound therapy.

Young man with symptom of hearing loss on color background


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