Alzheimer's is a neurodegenerative disorder that develops gradually and gets progressively worse over time. A subcategory of dementia, it accounts for 60 to 80% of these cases. There is no cure for Alzheimer's, though medication and some treatments can ease or slow symptoms and increase life expectancy in some individuals. Without treatment, people with the disease usually develop more severe symptoms more quickly. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's can reduce symptoms and enables people to maintain their cognitive and physiological functions for as long as possible.

Memory problems

Memory problems are often the earliest symptom of Alzheimer's. Individuals may begin to forget events, often recent occurrences, which classifies the symptom as short-term memory loss. The person may ask the same questions or repeat statements over and over. Some people begin misplacing their possessions, leaving them in odd places. As this symptom progresses, remembering names may become more difficult.



Disorientation and confusion with time and space are common in those with Alzheimer's, even in the early stages of the disease. The individual may get lost in familiar places, lose track of dates and the passage of time, and fail to recognize familiar objects. Though this symptom can be confused with a common byproduct of the aging process, but the symptoms become more severe as the disease progresses. Experts recommend that older adults who exhibit even minor disorientation be tested promptly to rule out or identify dementia.


Withdrawal from work or social activities

One early indication of Alzheimer's is an individual's increased withdraw from work and social activities. This may be due to their realization that these projects are becoming more difficult to complete, or the withdrawal could be more subconscious, due to decreased motivation.


Trouble with comprehension

Alzheimer's disease diminishes comprehension, slowing problem-solving abilities and causing confusion in commonplace situations. Furthermore, vision impairment can adversely affect the individual's ability to read, judge distances, and determine colors. Over time, one's grasp of abstract notions weakens; numbers may become difficult to understand, as may social interactions in general.


Problems with speech and writing

Since Alzheimer's diminishes the brain's ability to comprehend and make associative deductions, problems with speech and writing manifest over time. People struggle with vocabulary, finding it increasingly difficult to find the right words for objects or experiences. It is common for those with Alzheimer's to stop halfway through a conversation, unsure of how to continue. In advanced stages, one's language may become convoluted and hard for others to understand. People with Alzheimer's may also find alphabets and scripts undecipherable.


Poor judgement

People with Alzheimer's often have a diminished sense of judgment. They may make uncharacteristic or unintelligent decisions. Those who remain living on their own may spend or invest money frivolously. They may begin sharing confidential information with absolute strangers and lose the ability to drive safely. This symptom can also affect grooming and self-care, with individuals losing interest in basic hygiene habits. This symptom can especially affect people who have developed other physical limitations due to advanced age.


Changes in mood and personality

Alzheimer's alters the balance of chemicals in the brain, and this results in behavioral changes, including depression and mood swings. Some individuals become irritable and aggressive. As the disease progresses, most patients tend to withdrawal from and lose interest in social interaction and may become stubborn or uncooperative in interacting with them, especially if they become paranoid. Many become preoccupied with thinking someone has stolen their property. As the disease progresses, interactions become increasingly difficult.



It is quite common for a person with Alzheimer's to be agitated and anxious much of the time; fear, fatigue, and confusion can stem from their diminishing ability to understand the world around them. As it becomes more difficult for them to communicate their needs, they may lose patience quite easily. Making the move from their house to a care home can be an especially frightening situation.


Difficulty with familiar tasks

It often takes individuals with Alzheimer's longer to complete even simple, day-to-day tasks. This can be due to a combination of the loss of reasoning skills, declining physical ability, and lack of concentration. Often, the person becomes frustrated or angry about this, which can further interfere with the task's completion.


Difficulty communicating

Alzheimer's can make an individual lose their train of thought in the middle of a conversation. This, combined with decreasing vocabulary and reasoning skills, can make communication more and more difficult. People with Alzheimer's often begin using the wrong words to describe people or things, which can make conversing with them very confusing. Some people resort to hand gestures rather than words in an attempt to make their meaning known.


Changes in language

As Alzheimer's disease progresses, individuals may find it increasingly difficult to communicate effectively. They might struggle to find the right words, have trouble following or joining in conversations, or use incorrect names for common objects. This deterioration in language skills can extend to reading and writing, making it challenging for individuals to engage in activities that were once routine. Such changes not only affect the ability to communicate needs and thoughts but also contribute to feelings of frustration and isolation.

hard to communicate elderly person with Alzheimers


Loss of initiative

One of the more subtle signs of Alzheimer's is a noticeable decline in the person's willingness to start or participate in activities. This loss of initiative means that individuals may sit passively for hours, show little interest in hobbies or social engagements they once enjoyed, and become increasingly reliant on family members or caregivers to suggest activities or make decisions for them. This shift can be particularly disheartening for loved ones, as it signifies a withdrawal from the proactive aspects of life, further diminishing the individual's independence and quality of life.

Rear view of senior man sitting on armchair and looking through the window. Lonely old man sitting at home near window during covid19 outbreak. Thoughtful retired man abandoned at nursing home.


Difficulty with spatial awareness

Alzheimer's disease can impair an individual's [visual] spatial awareness, leading to challenges in navigating even familiar environments. This difficulty is characterized by problems with balance, an increased risk of falls, and trouble judging distances or spatial relationships between objects. Such spatial disorientation can make everyday tasks, like climbing stairs or driving, hazardous. It can also add to the broader spectrum of cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's, further complicating the ability to live independently.

old person running into a chair on accident


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