Uremia refers to a high level of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds in the blood. The condition is also referred to as uremic syndrome and is the main complication of chronic kidney disease. Healthy kidneys typically eliminate these substances, which are poisonous to the body. In the case of chronic kidney issues, uremia usually indicates end-stage disease. It also accompanies acute kidney injuries, but in these cases, it will generally resolve when the injury once medical practitioners treat the injury.
The causes of uremia fit into three categories: prerenal, renal, and postrenal. In the former, decreased blood flow to the kidneys causes the death of kidney cells. This can happen for several reasons such as low blood pressure, dehydration, heart failure, extreme stress, bleeding, or corticosteroid use. Renal causes stem from the breakdown of kidney function as seen in inflammatory and acute or chronic kidney disease. Postrenal causes refer to external obstructions of urine flow from calculi, tumors, prostate or bladder issues, and infections.
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