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Ophthalmoplegia is a loss of function or weakness of the muscles that control the eye and eyelid movements. The condition may develop as a symptom of another disease, such as multiple sclerosis, but could also stem from trauma, inadequate blood supply, neurological disorders, or mitochondrial disease. Ophthalmoplegia affects either the nerve pathways of the eye or the muscles that control eye movement.

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1. Classifications of Ophthalmoplegia

People with ophthalmoplegia experience reduced mobility of the eyes. Symptoms can be confusing; not only do they overlap with other conditions, but ophthalmoplegia is also a symptom of many disorders. There are two classifications of ophthalmoplegia, based on the cause itself or the directions of the affected eye movements. Myopathic causes affect the muscles controlling eye movement. Neurogenic causes relate to the nerve pathways controlling the eye muscles.

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