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The law of segregation first appeared in an academic paper by Gregor Mendel. It is a science model that states gene pairs can and do ignite specific traits in people. The idea of genes signifying the traits a particular person possesses is nothing new. We have long known that everyone gets their characteristics from their parents. Parents can pass their attributes onto their biological children because the genes children get from them are DNA pieces located in their chromosomes.  

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There Are Different Versions Of Human Genes

Since genes are present in our bodies in different versions, they are known as alleles. The reason why genes are in different versions is that every cell in the human body has double copies of each chromosome. Every allele in the body is recessive or dominant. In the case of a dominant allele, there may be a single copy of it in the body. This is true when it comes to the brown eye gene that many of us possess. With no need for a second allele, one is sufficient to determine someone's eye color. When there are two dominant alleles in one's body co-dominance is the word used to designate this. In this case, both alleles are equally present in the body. This happens when one's blood type is AB, as that is the result of having equal parts of A and B alleles in the human body.

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Determining Organism Type

Mendel is also known for the test cross, a type of genetic testing. The test shows if a zygosity is homozygous or heterozygous. The difference between the two lies in the proportion of dominant to recessive genes. A homozygous person has a pair of dominant genes in their body while a heterozygous person has a dominant gene as well as a recessive one. A test cross involves taking an organism that has not been identified and combining it with one that has a recessive trait. The two are mated to create an entirely new organism. This new organism is then tested to determine if its offspring will have recessive genes. If recessive genes are present, it means that the allele in the parent gene is heterozygous. If dominant genes are present, it means that the parent gene of the alleles is homozygous.

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The Law Of Segregation Is A Scientific Principle

The law of segregation is a scientific principle which involves four concepts that are important to understanding. One of the concepts is that genes often exist in multiple forms within the same person. Another is that each one has its own pair of traits. Furthermore, dominant and recessive genes form different pairs of alleles. The fourth concept is a bit more complex. It involves meiosis resulting in the production of sex cells. These cells have their own separate alleles. Each allele found in a person helps to determine each of the genetic traits they possess.

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Mendel Performed Experiments On Pea Plants

Mendel's experiments involving using pea plants to study particular human traits. He chose seven traits, each one taking on different forms. He famously studied the color of pea pods, as they are always either yellow or green. This experiment solidified the importance and significance of the law of segregation. Because pea plants have a natural ability to fertilize themselves, Mendel's experimentation's resulted in plants that are true-breeders. He showed that a yellow pea pod plant was only capable of producing yellow offspring. Further experiments determined that by cross-pollinating yellow and green pods, he could create green pods, where this creation had been impossible before. This came to be known as the F1 Generation, which led to the pollination of those plants. Pea plants belonging to the F2 Generation posses two phenotypes and three genotypes. The specific genotype determines the phenotype that is expressed in a generation.

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The Model Of Inheritance Shaped The Law of Segregation

Mendel's contributions to the law of segregation also include the inheritance model. This was a way for him to easily determine how a flower inherits the characteristic of its color. The model shows that parent plants pass on their genes to the flowers that they breed. In the case of the color of a seed, both yellow and green are in each allele. Whichever color possesses the dominant gene is the one that ultimately determines the color of a particular flower. Determining the characteristics of a flower was something Mendel studied extensively. Aside from determining the color, he also determined other important factors by using the inheritance model in his experimentation. When it came to the shapes of the seeds, Mendel studied the recessive trait was wrinkled while the dominant was round, resulting in more seeds that were round than were wrinkled, though some seeds were both.

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Further Characteristics Were Determined

Determining the height a particular plant would be was also a part of Mendel's experiments. He discovered that when the dominant trait was tall and the recessive was short, he ended up with over twice as many tall plants as short plants. He was also able to determine the position of each flower once it grew.  This proves that Mendel's model of inheritance was an essential development in the law of segregation. It is now used in regards to both plants and animals.

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A Genotype Is A Genetic Organism Makeup

Mendel's genotypes are simply the genetic makeup found in any organism. In its broadest terms, a genotype is the set of genes that each organism in the world has. In more specific terms it also includes a reference to an organism's alleles. When the determination regarding a genotype it is referred to as genotyping.

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An Allele Is A Specific Gene Form

An allele is a specific form of genes that are within a single chromosome. These work to determine what the outer portion of any organism will look like.

The term allele is also used when referring to minor sequence variations within DNA. These variations are so minor that they may not even have an impact on the phenotype of a particular gene.

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Meiosis In Human Beings

When there is a division within cells, it is called meiosis. It works to lessen the number of chromosomes found in the cell of a future parent, whether they be human, animal or plant. With two copies of both chromosomes, it allows offspring to be like their parents in some ways.

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Phenotypes And Organisms

Since the genotype determines the phenotype of an organism, it is important to understand the concept. The phenotype of an organism takes into consideration factors such as its behavior and appearance as well as its future development. It is important to note that in the case of identical twins, their phenotypes are not identical.

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