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Most people take pride in a certain skill or in their knowledge of certain fields, but they are also able to acknowledge where their abilities are lacking. The Dunning-Kruger effect is demonstrated by people who insist that they possess knowledge and skills that they obviously do not. This is known as the "cognitive bias of illusionary superiority."

The Dunning-Kruger effect can be seen in the behavior of certain celebrities, politicians, and even well-known social media personalities. The study that gave the Dunning-Kruger effect its name was conducted in 1999 by a psychologist and graduate student at Cornell University.

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1. Definition

The paper published by Dunning and Kruger is titled "Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments." Though the titele is quite a mouthful, it basically states that the least competent people rate themselves as the most competent. The simplest explanation is that people who vastly overestimate their own competence are too ignorant to realize what they don't know.

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