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Have you ever wondered what makes the universe stick together? Here is a hint: it's not a industrial sized jar of cosmic super glue. No, the secret to keeping things together is a chemical bonding process known as valent bonding - where the electrons in the outer shells of atoms bond with each other to form molecules. Covalent bonds are some of the most powerful bonds in the universe.

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1. The Father of Covalent Bonds - Irving Langmuir

The world of chemical science was introduced to the principle of covalence in 1919. Future Nobel Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir coined the term to describe the molecular bonds formed by electrons in the outermost shell or valence of atoms. The term "covalent bond" first came into use in 1939.

An American chemist, Irving Langmuir was born in Brooklyn, New York, on January 31, 1881, as the third of four sons to Charles Langmuir and Sadie Comings. Langmuir graduated as a metallurgical engineer from the School of Mines at Columbia University in 1903 and earned his M. A. and Ph.D. in chemistry in 1906. His work in surface chemistry would be rewarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, in 1932.

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