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The best canine companion is a healthy one. Despite articles claiming that mixed-breed dogs have fewer health conditions than purebred ones, an extensive 15-year study showed that the most common disorders occurred equally in both. While some conditions occur more frequently within specific breeds, others experience fewer major health issues overall. Finding the healthiest dog starts with a reputable breeder who documents and routinely tests for genetic vulnerabilities within their historic lines.

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Australian Cattle Dog

Explore lists on dog-fan sites, and most of them will list the Australian cattle dog as one of the healthiest breeds. These compact, muscular canines are super-intelligent and resilient with high levels of energy. Access to lots of physical activity keeps them healthy. Breeders recommend that veterinarians screen puppies for congenital deafness between six and eight weeks of age and hip or elbow dysplasia when they’re two years old. Older Australian cattle dogs sometimes develop eye disease.

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Basenji

Healthwise, these are sturdy, “barkless” dogs that require regular daily exercise and rarely have any health complications. Keeping them fit and lean is crucial to their overall health. The basenji’s body is similar to a deer’s — strong, agile, and lightly built — yet they are more cat-like in their grooming habits. They also don’t like being in the rain. Hip or elbow dysplasia and hypothyroidism can occur as they age if it is present in their lineage.

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English Foxhound

The gentle English foxhound is an athletic, beautiful, and elegant breed, with a huge amount of stamina and high energy levels. Although they're robust and healthy, this deep-chested canine is at a higher risk for bloat, a potentially life-threatening condition. Taking steps such as avoiding elevated food bowls, waiting an hour after exercise before feeding them, and providing multiple, smaller meals instead of one large one lowers the risk.

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Belgian Malinois

Strong and confident, the Belgian Malinois also ranks high on the list for breeds with the fewest number of health issues, although they aren’t the greatest pick for families with children or other pets. Like other larger dogs, hip and elbow dysplasia can develop as they get older, although breeders who have followed selective practices have helped decrease the number of affected dogs. Between the ages of two and five, some Belgian Malinois have shown signs of epilepsy, although a few dogs have exhibited symptoms as early as six months. These are working dogs, with above-average intelligence and a 12-14 year life span.

Young beautiful woman enjoying time outdoors with a malinois dog pet. About 20 years old, Caucasian brunette. GoodLifeStudio / Getty Images
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Chihuahua

What this tiny breed lacks in size, it makes up for with its “big dog” personality. The Chihuahua may look fragile at first glance, but in reality, they're quite robust. Potential genetic issues include heart conditions, eye disease, idiopathic epilepsy, and loose kneecaps. Although these genetic issues occur within the breed, it doesn’t mean all Chihuahuas will develop them. Regular veterinary screenings, a healthy diet, and regular exercise are key to ensuring that they live a long and happy life.

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Poodle

Don’t let those fancy haircuts fool you. Poodles are not the fragile aristocrats some people believe them to be. They’re athletic, smart, and extremely versatile dogs. Plus, they’re quick learners and excellent swimmers. Bloat is an issue for the breed. Idiopathic epilepsy, von Willebrand’s disease, and orthopedic problems are possible issues, although breeders have had excellent results in lowering their occurrences within their lines.

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Siberian Husky

This strikingly beautiful breed is also one of the most healthy around. Siberian huskies are friendly and good-natured but tend to be a tad strong-willed and difficult to train. One of the few health issues they tend to experience is juvenile cataracts. Owners should have their dog screened for the condition starting at 12 months of age. Most huskies live to be between 12 and 15 years old and require a great deal of exercise for both their mental and physical health.

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Shih Tzu

Their big eyes, luxurious coats, and funny personalities are features that attract most fans to the breed. Although they don’t tolerate heat very well and they aren’t very good swimmers, the Shih Tzu experiences few health issues. Slipped kneecaps or hip dysplasia are possible. Eye issues, such as cataracts and retinal atrophy or detachment, have also been an issue in some breeding lines. These sweet little companion dogs generally have lifespans of around 15 years.

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Australian Shepherd

Another sturdy pooch with excellent roots, this intelligent, tough herding dog became a much-loved partner on American ranches and rodeo circuits following World War II. This is an excellent breed choice for people with non-sedentary lifestyles. Overall Australian Shepherds have outstanding health, although vet exams usually include hip and elbow dysplasia screenings. Idiopathic epilepsy has historically been an issue within the breed.

Shot of an adorable Australian shepherd dog sitting on the sofa at home AJ_Watt / Getty Images
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Border Collie

Scottish shepherds and farmers originally developed the eager, agile, and exceedingly smart border collie. These dogs are herders extraordinaire and love working, so they require a lot of physical activity to keep their bodies healthy. Breeders’ efforts to rid genetic lines of hip dysplasia and inherited eye problems have been pretty successful. However, owners should have their pets checked for signs of these issues through regular veterinary exams.

Funny portrait of cute smilling puppy dog border collie holding colourful rope toy in mouth. New lovely member of family little dog at home playing with owner. Pet care and animals concept Iuliia Zavalishina / Getty Images

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