As you chew bread, your saliva breaks down the starches into sugar. Bread is a fermentable carbohydrate, as is any sugar easily fermented through your digestive system. Fermentable carbohydrates include oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. Fermentable carbohydrates are composed of short chains of sugar molecules, making them easy to break down.
Lactose, more commonly known as milk sugar, is a fermentable carbohydrate. Not everyone's system has the means necessary to break it down easily, however. Lactose intolerance is a condition that affects people who are missing the enzyme necessary to break down lactose. These people usually need to substitute milk alternatives or take special supplements to help them digest lactose. Sometimes, avoiding all dairy products is the only way to find relief from lactose intolerance.
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