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Vesicoureteral reflux or VUR occurs in the urinary tract. The kidneys produce urine, which should flow down from the kidneys, through the ureters, into the bladder. VUR alters the urinary tract, however, causing urine to flow backward. This urine backup or reflux travels up through the ureters into the kidneys.

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1. Risk Factors for Vesicoureteral Reflux

Approximately one to three percent of infants and children have VUR, but the conditoin could be more common than statistics show, as some mild cases of VUR have no symptoms. VUR occurs more often among Caucasian children than African-Americans. Roughly 25% of children with siblings or parents diagnosed with VUR also have the condition. Girls are more likely to develop VUR overall, but boys have an increased likelihood of VUR during infancy. This is because baby boys urinate in a way that puts pressure on the entire urinary tract.

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