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The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and consists of two hemispheres that share four lobes between them. Because the cerebrum has many subdivisions and sub-regions that each perform their own functions, it can be difficult to list all of the processes and activities with which this essential structure assists. Essentially, the cerebrum is responsible for controlling all voluntary actions, though it also controls several involuntary ones, as well. These actions include movement, sensory processing, language, and learning.

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1. Anatomy

The cerebrum sits just on top of the brainstem. It has outer layers of grey matter with underlying sections of white matter. Grey matter is the darker tissue of the brain and consists mostly of nerve cell bodies. White matter consists of specialized tissue that increases the speed of electrical impulses that trigger many of the body’s functions. The outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex. Its surface has many ridges and furrows that experts call gyri and sulci.

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