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Hypersensitivity has many names such as hypersensitivity intolerance or reaction. Though, it refers to any adverse response produced by the body's immune system. This condition is also known as the immune system's over-reaction which may cause damages to the body, uncomfortable feelings or even death. Such reactions require the body to be in an immune or pre-sensitized state.

Hypersensitivity can involve mechanisms which are either immunological or non-immunological. There are different types of hypersensitivity, and it's essential to learn more about them. So if you experience these conditions, you have an idea what caused them and what treatment you need. The common types of hypersensitivity include type I, type II, type III, and type IV. There also a fifth type of hypersensitivity but it's quite rare. Read on to learn about these types of hypersensitivity along with their causes and treatments:

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Causes of allergic hypersensitivity (type I)

Allergic hypersensitivity or allergies happen when the body's immune system reacts to foreign matter. The allergic reaction would start when the immune system confuses a harmless substance for something harmful. When this happens, the immune system will produce antibodies which would remain in the body. The antibodies would stay alert for the specific allergen they need to defend the body against.

When you get exposed to the same substance, the antibodies will produce chemicals like histamine which then cause the allergic hypersensitivity symptoms. Common triggers for this type of hypersensitivity are airborne allergens, foods, medications, insect stings, latex, and more.

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Treatments of allergic hypersensitivity (type I)

The very first thing you should do to treat allergic hypersensitivity is to stay away from the allergens. You can do this if you know the exact cause of the reaction. This is the most crucial step in preventing future reactions and in reducing the symptoms of the condition.

One of the most common forms of treatment is to take medications which would depend on your allergic reaction. These medications can reduce the response of your immune system and alleviate the symptoms of the condition. There are over-the-counter and prescription medications which come in the form of nasal sprays, eye drops, liquid or even pills.

Treatments of allergic hypersensitivity (type I)
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Treatments of Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity- Type II

Treatment for type II hypersensitivity is more aimed at the management of the symptoms. Depending on the condition's severity, the doctor can apply different approaches to treatment. The doctor can give such treatments on their own or in combination with each other.

For one, the doctor can prescribe steroids such as dexamethasone, prednisolone, and more. In some cases, you would need high doses of the steroids, and in some cases, they may be a long-term medication for treatment. In such cases, though, you will need medical supervision to be able to monitor any potential side effects. Other treatment options include intragam infusion, plasmapheresis, or prescription of other types of drugs.

Treatments of Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity- Type II
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Treatments of cytotoxic hypersensitivity (type II)

Treatment for type II hypersensitivity is more aimed at the management of the symptoms. Depending on the condition's severity, the doctor can apply different approaches to treatment. The doctor can give such treatments on their own or in combination with each other.

For one, the doctor can prescribe steroids. In some cases, you would need high doses of the steroids, and in some cases, they may be a long-term medication for treatment. In such cases, though, you will need medical supervision to be able to monitor any potential side effects. Other treatment options include intragam infusion, plasmapheresis, or prescription of other types of drugs.

Treatments of cytotoxic hypersensitivity (type II)

Causes of immune hypersensitivity (type III)

Just like in type II hypersensitivity, there's an interaction between antigens and antibodies immune hypersensitivity. Here, the antibodies which are soluble bind to the antigens. They then form immune complexes which move through the bloodstream then settle in the different organs. This means that immune hypersensitivity can actually occur in various body parts.

The cause of type III hypersensitivity are the different biochemical mechanisms which then result in the damage of body tissues. Just like with type II, the antigens can either be intrinsic or extrinsic. When the immune complexes cause a reaction which leads to tissue damage, it causes immune hypersensitivity.

 Causes of allergic hypersensitivity (type I)

Treatments of immune hypersensitivity (type III)

Type III hypersensitivity can manifest itself in different ways. They can be either chronic or acute reactions which can occur in specific tissues or which can happen systematically. This is because self-antigens or foreign antigens can induce the condition.

 If you're suffering from immune hypersensitivity, you need to consult with a doctor to get the proper treatment. Usually, though, doctors administer non-specific immunosuppressive treatments to those who have this type of hypersensitivity.

Treatments of immune hypersensitivity (type III)

Causes of delayed-type hypersensitivity (type IV)

Unlike the first three types we've discussed, this is a bit different in terms of when it occurs. Type IV hypersensitivity is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity because it takes a couple of days for the condition to develop. This happens after the person gets exposed to the specific substance he's allergic to. But just like type III, this can happen in different parts of the body.

This type of hypersensitivity comes from a cell-mediated response instead of from antibodies like in the other types. In particular, the T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell in the body, have something to do with the development of the condition, so it's also called cell-mediated hypersensitivity. After getting exposed to antigens, biochemical activities in the body occur which then activate these cells. In turn, they activate other types of white blood cells launch an immune response. This is why it takes a few days before the symptoms of the condition would manifest.

Causes of delayed-type hypersensitivity (type IV)

Treatments for delayed-type hypersensitivity (type IV)

If you're suffering from delayed-type hypersensitivity, you should seek professional help. The same thing goes if you're already following a treatment plan and you want to make modifications in it. As a matter of fact, there's no permanent cure for this condition. The treatment would only focus on managing its symptoms.

First of all, you need to identify the allergen that's causing the hypersensitivity. This is crucial so that you can avoid contact with it. Other treatment options include immunotherapy or administration of medications like cyclosporine, steroids, and more.

Treatments for delayed-type hypersensitivity (type IV)

Causes of stimulant hypersensitivity (type V)

This is the last type of hypersensitivity is rare. Here, the body produces antibodies when specific cell targets get stimulated. Let's look at a concrete example of stimulant hypersensitivity. In Graves disease, antibodies stimulate the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. This leads to the thyroid gland's over-activity.

Rather than binding to the surfaces of the cells, the antibodies identify then bind to the surface receptors of the cells. When this happens, it hinders the intended binding act which would impair the cell's ability to send out signals.

Stimulates Thyroid

Treatments of stimulant hypersensitivity (type V)

Since this type of hypersensitivity is quite rare and comes with a disease, then the best thing to do is consult with your doctor.

After the diagnosis, you can get a whole treatment plan which can help alleviate the uncomfortable symptoms you feel because of the condition.

Treatments of stimulant hypersensitivity (type V)

Disclaimer

This site offers information designed for educational purposes only. You should not rely on any information on this site as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment, or as a substitute for, professional counseling care, advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any concerns or questions about your health, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professional.