There are certain times during the year where the earth, moon, and sun actually line up.
When this happens, the moon can block the sun (or at least, a part of it). This is known as a solar eclipse. A solar eclipse can only happen during the new moon phase. When the earth casts a shadow over the moon, it is known as a lunar eclipse. This can only happen during the full moon phase.
While there are four to seven eclipses that happen every year, they are often partial eclipses. Total eclipses are relatively rare and are affected by where you are in the world as to how much of it you will see.
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