The Dunning-Kruger effect is based on the idea that people are unaware of their ignorance. Poor performers in various situations not only make mistakes but are also unaware that they are making mistakes. Research shows that self-evaluation errors occur because the Dunning-Kruger effect causes people to overestimate their performance.

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1. Who Are Dunning and Kruger?

Psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger did a study in 1999 and published a paper in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology titled "Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments." Dunning has a Ph.D. in psychology from Stanford University, and Krugar has a Ph.D. in Social Psychology from Cornell.

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