Probiotics and prebiotics are both essential elements for a healthier gut. Probiotics refer to micro-organisms that thrive in the digestive tract which help in the process of digestion by cleansing the tract so that digested material can flow more freely. Since these are living organisms, they will need nourishment to stay active and perform the duties that will benefit the human body. They will need prebiotics. Prebiotics, on the other hand, serves as the food for the probiotics. They're needed for the nourishment of probiotics so the latter can function effectively. In analogy, do you remember about the 70's computer game, Pacman? The probiotics are Pacman, eating its way through those mazes of yellow dots, which are the prebiotics. It's as simple as that.
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