Viral hemorrhagic fevers cause a broad spectrum of symptoms. Vectors, the animals who spread the disease, vary and can be hard to avoid, which makes infection with an RNA virus -- the general family responsible for the condition -- more likely. Single-strand RNA viruses can be divided into four categories. Arenaviridae are mostly rodent-transmitted viruses that are relatively common. Bunyaviridae is a large family of viruses that can cause disease in both humans and animals. Filoviridae can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in primates, and mosquitos and ticks most often transport Flaviviridae and can sometimes infect humans.


1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

First identified in Crimea in 1944 and then in the Congo 25 years later, the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus, of the Bunyaviridae family, is transmitted by the ixodid tick bite or when humans come in contact with an infected animal's fluids. Vomiting and fever are the earliest symptoms, then come tiny patches of bleeding under the skin or petechiae, bruising, and nosebleeds. While antivirals may help, ensuring a balance of blood, electrolytes, and oxygen levels offers more significant benefits, especially since recovery can be slow.

ixodid tick crimean-congo Lezh / Getty Images


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