2. Primary VUR

Most children with vesicoureteral reflux have primary VUR. Primary VUR results from urinary tract abnormalities present at birth, which may include posterior urethral valve defects, ureterocele, and ureter duplication. Spina bifida and other neural tube defects sometimes cause abnormalities that result in primary VUR. Valves between the bladder and ureters on both sides of the body prevent urine backflow into the kidneys. Defects in those valves prevent full closure, which compromises the barrier meant to prevent urine backflow. Unilateral reflux is the medical term for VUR when only one valve and ureter are compromised.

primary VUR, valves, reflux, backflow ericsphotography / Getty Images

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