A flexible sigmoidoscopy examines the lower section of the colon — the last section of the bowel that connects to the rectum. The sigmoid colon contains a lot of muscle tissues and functions as a holding chamber for waste before it is excreted from the body.

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1. Sigmoidoscope

A sigmoidocope is the device used to perform a sidmoidosopy. It is a thin, flexible tube with a small camera at the tip to capture video images, allowing the doctor to visualize the inside of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and the descending colon. The doctor may also take a biopsy — cut away a small piece of tissue for testing — during this exam.

Sigmoidoscope sigmoid colon Elena KHarchenko / Getty Images
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