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2. Alcohol

The teratogenic effects of alcohol during pregnancy depend on how much alcohol the pregnant woman ingests over a period of time. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) describes a range of challenges newborns inherit due to maternal alcohol consumption. Babies with FAS have facial abnormalities as well as microcephaly, where the skull is abnormally small and leads to poor brain development. Additionally, many have learning and behavioral problems due to changes in the various parts of the brain.

fetal alcohol syndrome OlegEvseev / Getty Images
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