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2. Surgery

Surgery is the most appropriate treatment for early stage bowel cancer; in such case, limited surgery can be performed in a less invasive manner, if the tumor has not yet spread to the structures adjacent to the colon. The surgeon will then remove just a small portion of the lining of the colon where the tumor is located. However, if the growth has spread, then the surgery may be a colectomy, which is the removal of the entire colon along with the satellite lymph nodes. This removal happens by an open colectomy, keyhole colectomy, or a robotic keyhole surgery.

Surgery for colorectal cancer may be combined with other treatments to ensure that no cancer cell remains, decreasing thereby, the risk of recurrence of the disease, or metastatic propagation.

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