2. Physical Counter-Pressure Maneuvres

Physical counter-pressure maneuvers or CPMs can help people stay conscious during a syncopal episode. The series of muscle movements raises blood pressure. Squeeze a rubber ball in the dominant hand, or grip one hand with the other hand while pulling them against each other. Cross one leg over the other and squeeze muscles in the legs, abdomen, and buttocks. People who often feel faint can practice CPM to be ready for a syncopal episode.

counter-pressure manoevres, practice, muscle, tense KittisakJirasittichai / Getty Images

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