2. Keratinization

The epithelial cells in hair, nails, and the top layers of skin and mucous membranes are cornified, which means the cells are dead and no longer divide or repair themselves. Programmed cell death is a regulated process that enables other processes to replace dead cells on the body's surface. Another word for cornification is keratinization; cells fill with keratin filaments that replace cytoplasm, nuclei, and organelles.

body keratin is Dr_Microbe / Getty Images

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