The brainstem divides into three important parts, the midbrain, medulla, and pons. The midbrain is responsible for regulating functions contributing to sensory perception, motor control, sleep cycles, and body temperature. The pons regulates many of the body's autonomic functions, such as breathing, urination, some sensory perceptions, swallowing, balance, and cranial nerve functions. Finally, the medulla regulates other autonomic systems not controlled by the pons, including respiration, heartbeat, and blood pressure.
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