2. Internal, External, and Total Ophthalmoplegia

Internal ophthalmoplegia affects the pupillary sphincter, the iris of the eye, and the ciliary muscle that enables the eye lens to change shape to focus. External ophthalmoplegia affects the extraocular muscles that control eye movement and eyelid elevation. If an individual has total ophthalmoplegia, they have both internal and external ophthalmoplegia. Migraine headaches, diabetes, infections, injuries, and cause the condition. A stroke can also lead to ophthalmoplegia.

internal external ophthalmoplegia iris tbradford / Getty Images

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